BlockByBlock

Ideas and discussion from BxB2010 Summit

Lakeland Local: Where’s the Money?

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One of the major topics at the Sept. 24 Block by Block summit was money: How can a local news site support itself financially? Journalism master’s students from the Medill School at Northwestern University interviewed conference participants about their business and revenue strategies.

We hope these posts will continue conversations that started at Block by Block. If you have ideas that will help these and other online community publishers achieve their goals or questions about how they are doing that, please join the discussion in the comments. Thanks!

By Kevin Shalvey

Lakeland Local covers the community of Lakeland, Florida, which sits roughly midway between Tampa and Orlando. Its “editor, writer, and occasional photographer” is Chuck Welch.

Are you a for-profit or a nonprofit company?

Welch: Neither. I’m a self-supported site, so I’m not set up as a business at all. I’m retired basically. If you were here last night, you heard me say that I make my living off my wife, who supports everything I do. We changed our lifestyle so that we could live much more simply, so that we could survive comfortably on what one person makes, so that I can do this and stay home and raise my daughter.

Being an outsider, what are your thoughts on the nonprofit debate? Has your strategy worked well?

Welch: I’ve worked in both, profits and nonprofits, and there are benefits to both. I think the biggest benefit of being self-profit is being incredibly nimble. I do what I want when I want. None of these questions about advertisers or sponsors. Sponsors want you to cover a story the same way as advertisers. They think that by becoming a sponsor, you’re going to be a little nicer to their field or whatever. I don’t have any of that. I write about what I want, when I want. I’m my own designer.

Your site carries a few bylines. Who contributes?

Welch: Right now, we have a few ex-journalists who have left the field but still want to write. They want to cover city hall or whatever. And then I have a mix of citizen journalists that I’ve been working with, and they do videography or photography or whatever. Three ex-journalists and three citizen journalists, a photographer and a cinematographer. It’s not a staff. They don’t have a regular schedule. I might get somebody who goes on vacation for four weeks and doesn’t publish.

For how long have you been running the site?

Welch: Four years ago with this site. I’ve run sites for years, but this is my first local journalism site. I started in journalism, but quickly went out and did something else. I worked in civil engineering. I worked at a library consortium doing systems administration. I worked for a homeless shelter and for a drug treatment center. I get bored every three years. I have the attention span of a child.

And you don’t have to worry about revenue, but you must have some costs.

Welch: The places where I notice problems with what I do is that I’m not going to be able to go out and buy some open-box answer to what I need. I have to make it myself. I did a lot of community mapping when I first started — and I still do — but I have to use all open-source materials when I do. There would be a lot better mapping programs available, but, of course, I can’t afford them.

I couldn’t live without a computer anyway. Cameras, that’s something that I always had. We’re all pretty technically proficient people.

What was your revenue during the first half of the year?

Welch: Zero.

What are the biggest threats, challenges and issues facing community coverage?

Welch: That’s hard. I think it’s forgetting the passion that brings people into journalism. If it becomes just a money issue, if we become business people, then we won’t have time to concentrate on the passion that brought us here in the first place. Newspapers work because they have a lot of those business people answering those questions while we are journalists. And I fear if we have too many one-man, one-woman shops that business will start to overload what we do for our passion.

These interviews were conducted as part of a class at the Medill School of Journalism that’s focused on new approaches to hyperlocal publishing.  To follow the class’s work, check out the class blog, Local Fourth.

Written by richgor

October 12, 2010 at 6:38 am

Posted in Uncategorized

Edhat.com: Where’s the Money?

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One of the major topics at the Sept. 24 Block by Block summit was money: How can a local news site support itself financially? Journalism master’s students from the Medill School at Northwestern University interviewed conference participants about their business and revenue strategies.

We hope these posts will continue conversations that started at Block by Block. If you have ideas that will help these and other online community publishers achieve their goals or questions about how they are doing that, please join the discussion in the comments. Thanks!

By Jason Shough

Peter Sklar founded Edhat.com in Santa Barbara, Calif. about six years ago, opting for a traditional ad-and-subscription business model so the site would be an independent source of community news. Non-profits rely too much on grants and donations, he said, potentially affecting the angle of the coverage.

The site has since expanded into two additional California communities, San Luis Obispo and Ventura, but Santa Barbara remains the most robust online forum in the Edhat portfolio. It boasts 8,876 subscribers, of whom 708 have signed up voluntarily to pay a recurring monthly charge of $4.33, allowing them the ability to post comments.

Roughly half of Edhat’s monthly operating revenue comes from paid subscribers, he said. The other half comes from local advertisers.

“The ad revenue is the low-hanging fruit right now,” Sklar said in an email. “But we see our [long-term] revenue model relying more heavily on receiving revenue from subscribers who spend many hours on our site each week and receive the most value from what we provide.”

Sklar is also skeptical of being dependent on advertising, and aired these concerns at Block by Block. The conference focused too heavily on ads as a dominant source of revenue, he said, rather than on getting users to pay for the service a site provides to a community.

“The consumer wants content. The businesses want promotion,” he said. “It seems impossible to create an online news source that makes both groups happy.”

“We are choosing to create the best website for citizens of Santa Barbara. And, what we have created is not necessarily a good forum for advertisers to promote. So, we need to find a way for our subscribers to support us.”

These interviews were conducted as part of a class at the Medill School of Journalism that’s focused on new approaches to hyperlocal publishing.  To follow the class’s work, check out the class blog, Local Fourth.

Written by richgor

October 11, 2010 at 2:14 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

Credibility Accuracy Reliability and related subjects

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Being part of “the media” brings along some baggage. There’s the whole “you brought down Richard Nixon” thing right alongside “you cheerleaders said there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq,” and it doesn’t matter if you’re the national daily or you’re the local guy with a website.

For the local guy with a website, you’ve the added problems of the fact that you’re right there, right in the middle of the community, and sometimes you’re up against established newspapers.

Following is loosely about a discussion between Tracy Record of the West Seattle Blog, Matt Hampel who works with open data, Scott Rosenberg of MediaBugs, Daniel O’Neil of Every Block, Bora Zivkovic, a science blogger with Science in the Triangle, Barbara Iverson of Chicago Talks. I’m an editor at Wicked Local, and I jump in at some parts.

Rosenberg noted “There’s this paradox for the hyperlocal sites.” There’s the Read the rest of this entry »

Written by katpowerswl

October 8, 2010 at 7:33 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

Oakland Local: Where’s the Money?

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One of the major topics at the Sept. 24 Block by Block conference was money: how a locally focused online publication can support itself financially.  Journalism master’s students from the Medill School at Northwestern University interviewed conference participants about their business and revenue strategies.

Stay tuned for a series of posts in the coming days. We hope these posts will continue conversations that started at Block by Block. If you have ideas that will help these and other online community publishers achieve their goals or questions about how they are doing that, please join the discussion in the comments. Thanks!

By Geoffrey Hing

(This Q&A with Susan Mernit, founder of Oakland Local, has been lightly edited for length and clarity.)

Is Oakland Local a for-profit or a non-profit site?

Susan Mernit: So Oakland Local’s a non-profit.  Legally, we’re a project of a 501(c)(3). We have a fiscal sponsor right now: the Center for Media Change, which is the organization that is also the fiscal sponsor for Spot.Us.

Are you happy with that status?

Mernit: It was really important to me not to set up too much structure in the beginning because in 2008 I spent a lot of time and effort setting up a C-corporation for a tech startup I was doing and after six months I ended up shutting it down.  So I felt really strongly I wanted to start the organization and then see where it was headed before I put any more formal structures around it.  And we’re not even a year old yet.  I feel strongly that, right now, being a non-profit is a really good fit for Oakland Local because of our focus on social justice and community empowerment.  We actually are starting a for-profit division that will be a separate company that we’ll run some revenue strategies through, so I can talk about that plan.

Is the L3C model something that’s available yet in California?

Mernit:  I believe it is available.  My personal opinion is that it makes you unappealing to everybody [financial supporters]. I don’t think people really understand what it is.  I don’t think they’re used to funding it.  And I don’t think we have the kind of established clout [so that] it would be an asset.

Tell me a little bit more about the for-profit spin-off and then also the relationship with the non-profit.

Mernit: So let me first make it clear that Oakland Local started much more like a Silicon Valley startup.  We got a $25,000 seed money grant from Jan Schaffer’s New Voices Project and we knew we were guaranteed $17,000 of that money.  But it was all the money we were getting.  So it was really clear that it was not going to be enough to live on.  It was not going to be enough to pay anybody.  So I knew that I would have to keep working while I was building Oakland Local.  So basically, we don’t have an operating budget.  The money that we have raised in addition to the money from Jan has been what’s called program money, where we get money to do cell phone research or to run a training program.  So we don’t have any unrestricted or operating funds yet. So everything I’m saying about kind of where we are is on the backdrop of we don’t have an endowment, we don’t have a donor program, we don’t have full-time people with paid salaries.  So we’re really at the point where we’ve developed this great product and now we have to find a way to survive.

So I’m doing two things at the same time.  I’m applying for more grants for programs that we’d like to do but I’m also looking for money that’s operating money or unrestricted money so we can have more money to just put people on staff, at least part time. And then we’re developing a whole series of ways to get revenue. And some of the revenue ways will run through Oakland Local because they’re a very natural, traditional fit. So, we’re launching an advertising program, a sponsorship program and a program called Ads for Events and all that money will go through the Oakland Local nonprofit account. We’re also launching a program called For Profit Training and that, along with a group called the Social Media Services Group will go through a new entity that we’re forming called House of Local.  And House of Local is actually a consulting cooperative that will have multiple members, including the three Oakland Local founders and we’ll do some training and some social media services work in the Bay Area and then we’ll do consulting on a national level. So it’s really an idea that we can take some of the things that we’re expert in and passionate about and even if we can’t funnel money into Oakland Local, we can funnel money into paying ourselves which then would support us as we work on Oakland Local.

Does your background in Silicon Valley position you differently than some of your peers at the conference today?

Mernit:  I’m kind of a weird hybrid because I started out as a poet and arts organizer.  I was on the Web very, very early.  I ended up having a really meteoric corporate career in the Web, basically, and went from running the new media group at Parade Magazine to getting recruited by America Online to join Netscape.com to run the portal three weeks before the merger happened.  So, you know, I’ve run businesses, I’ve had the P & L, and my passion for tech innovation and for problem solving has led me to become a lot of a user interface and product geek.  So my last corporate job was at Yahoo! where I was the No. 2 person at Yahoo! Personals, which at the time was the world’s largest online dating site.  I ran the product and the revenue optimization teams, and that was fantastic because it really taught me a lot about building large-scale data applications, both on the back end and the front.  So, it really helped me [understand] application development and the processes of doing large-scale development as well as running a really profitable business.  So, yes I probably have a lot of tech and business skills, as well as media background, [and] not everybody has the same mix.  I know there are other people who also have really impressive hybrids.  I’m not the only person with a cool background.

My impression is that there are a lot of media-based social-justice organizations that are looking to monetize themselves with a similar training-based model. Is that something that you’re seeing and does that put you in a competitive relationship with other organizations in your community?

Mernit: We’re very focused on collaborations.  Two of the organizations that we’re aware of that have had long-time training programs, from long before we got there, are the Media Alliance, which focuses a lot on media training on things like copy editing, and then the Center for Media Justice, which we have really good ties with and we don’t have any overlap or redundancy with either of them in what we teach.  And there are actually two newer organizations that we’re collaborating with.  So one of them is focusing on basic tech literacy and the other is more about WordPress and kind of more like blogging geek skills.  So what we’re trying to do is really identify the areas of expertise where we’re strongest and then play to those strengths and we’re happy to push people to other entities to do the things that they’re strongest at.

Is that by design, or is that just the way it’s worked out?

Mernit: We’re very much about playing to our strengths and not creating redundancies.  As a new organization we want to do the things we do best, not take over someone else’s established ability to do something and interrupt them. We’re about coalition building so there’s no need to do that.  And, the fact is, the skills that we have, where we’re really strong, are in how to tell a simple news story, a very Web-focused media literacy, using a lot of multimedia tools in a very inexpensive way — not the $6,000 camera — and I’m really using social media to organize and get the word out.  And our team has people who train around the country doing these things. So we have a lot of expertise and a passion for it.

You mentioned earlier that Oakland Local has no paid staff.  Both on the content side and on the training side, is it the case?

Mernit: So let me clarify what I mean by that.  We have three co-founders, and two of the co-founders don’t take any salary from Oakland Local – myself and Amy Gahran.  And Kwan Booth, who is the third co-founder, takes a small stipend every month.  We pay our writers — we don’t pay them particularly well — but we don’t pay people who are volunteers or who work for nonprofit organizations.  But people who are like community journalists or professional writers, we pay them. We don’t have any salaries.  We can’t afford it. We pay them on a freelance model. And then because we have a grant to help fund this program, we pay our trainers and the person who’s administering the [grant-funded] program.  So when I say we don’t pay people, what I mean is that the core people who are keeping Oakland Local going aren’t drawing salaries, not that there’s no money ever changing hands in any way.  We love paying people.  We would like to pay people as much as possible.

Who at your organization is the person who focuses on revenue?

Mernit:  It’s me.

What does your day as the revenue person look like?

Mernit: Well, I’m doing a really bad job of it, because I’ve also been the editor in chief.  I’ve been working really hard over the last year to kind of build a well-functioning editorial organization so that I can step more and more away from the edit side and focus on the revenue.  The first thing we’re rolling out, which I’m very excited about, is a series of for-profit trainings for small businesspeople.  And basically we’re teaming up with a local foundation that supports about 600 local merchants and they’re going to market these classes that we’re going to offer to the merchants in October and November, and we’ll do a three-session series as kind of a test.  If it works, we’ll team up with some of these other partners I mentioned and offer more of like and end-to-end series of programs starting in 2011.

In conjunction with that, we’re going to launch these three advertising programs: the sponsorships, which are really where people can sponsor a section of the site, and that’s a longer-term sale. That’s Whole Foods sponsoring our food access section, for example.  Then local advertisements.  I think we’re trying to sell ads around some of the holidays coming up as a starter, like Halloween or like Christmas.

The third ad program is called Ads for Events.  That will be about selling ads for weekly events that are going on in Oakland that need more promotion than they might get just on Facebook, but that people who are advertising in the alt weekly might find the price to be a little steep.  And the goal there is to sort of train people that they can buy not just one event but almost like a book of events.  So for a small fee they could buy a lot of events.  So for, say, a party promoter, it would be a really good program.

How much revenue have you brought in from January to June this year?

Mernit: We’ve actually made no effort to bring in revenue in the past 10 months.  We’ve made a lot of effort to develop viable revenue strategies.  We’ve done a lot of research into what kinds of revenue acquisition strategies would have a good return on investment.  There’s no group we could take ads away from in Oakland.  There’s no online advertising giant like there might be in New York or even San Francisco.  So we’ve had to really understand how you would develop a market, how you would identify prospects, what the education costs are. And, you know, being that we’re such a small entity, the research has been really helpful because we don’t have the money to spend.  We want to kind of plan it and then strike.  So a lot of the strategies we’re rolling out now are really based both on talking to people in the market in Oakland about what would work for them and then talking to practitioners around the country about what’s worked in other places.

Are you saying that your role’s going from strategizing about revenue to actually starting to build those relationships?

Mernit:  I sold my first two ads last week.

Is there anything else that you think it’s important that people know about Oakland Local, at least from the business and revenue side?

Mernit: We have the kind of traffic that we can now monetize.  Our page views are between 150,000 and 185,000 a month, with about 70,000 unique visitors.  But in a town like Oakland, being known as an organization is also really important. What we’ve done to help build name awareness is we’ve become a media sponsor, with many events so that we can leaflet and get shoutouts and have co-branding with more established Oakland entities. What we found in the first six months we were trying to sell ads is that people don’t understand online advertising, they’d never heard of us and they had absolutely no interest in doing anything with us.  We could have had a million page views a month and, like, they just didn’t know who we were.  So, you know, that was a little upsetting.  It was pretty upsetting to see.  But then, once we understood that we had to build the recognition before we could really build the relationships and the sales, we just worked really aggressively on doing that.  In the past four months, we’ve probably been media sponsors for like 12 different events and, you know, that’s really helping.

Are you media sponsors for events that are different than what the traditional, or even the independent media in Oakland would sponsor?

Mernit: I think we overlap in some ways.  Three of the events we’re sponsoring that I’m really excited about — we sponsor an event called The Fresh Fest, which was a green youth hip-hop festival that happened in a park in Oakland.  About a thousand people came — it was great.  We’re a sponsor now of the Oakland stop of the Life is Living tour, which is a spoken-word slam poetry festival that’s organized by a group called Youth Speaks that’s done a lot with Russell Simmons and his kind of spoken word events.  And these are both projects that focus a lot on people of color communities, on the arts on green eco-consciousness and on youth.  So we’re not interested in sponsoring like a football game or a party.  We want to support things that are tied to our values.  

These interviews were conducted as part of a class at the Medill School of Journalism that’s focused on new approaches to hyperlocal publishing.  To follow the class’s work, check out the class blog, Local Fourth.

Written by richgor

October 7, 2010 at 9:00 am

Posted in Uncategorized

Gapers Block: Where’s the Money?

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One of the major topics at the Sept. 24 Block by Block summit was money: How can a local news site support itself financially? Journalism master’s students from the Medill School at Northwestern University interviewed conference participants about their business and revenue strategies.

We hope these posts will continue conversations that started at Block by Block. If you have ideas that will help these and other online community publishers achieve their goals or questions about how they are doing that, please join the discussion in the comments. Thanks!

By Shane Shifflett

Andrew Huff, publisher of Chicago’s Gapers Block, left the Block by Block conference with a hint of pride.  The day before, a research project for the Chicago Community Trust revealed that his site serves as one of Chicago’s most important exchanges of links in the local news ecosystem.

“Three years ago we were nothing,” Huff said.

Huff built his site up over time and decided to incorporate once Gapers Block started to turn a profit.  He choose to incorporate as a limited liability company (LLC) because it protects personal incomes and assets in the event of something like a libel case.  He struggled with the decision between incorporating and going non-profit. He ultimately decided he didn’t have the staff available to handle the extra paper work that a non-profit would have required.

Huff said about 100 volunteer writers produce content for more than 100,000 monthly visitors (audience numbers from Quantcast, a site that provides statistics for web sites).  Eight editors, the only paid staffers besides Huff himself, oversee content production.

Gapers Block also won a $35,000 grant from the Community Trust to generate more neighborhood-based, original local coverage. on the site. But Huff said he largely relies on himself, his advertising director, and a salesman to keep the efficient operation profitable.

“Our overhead is our server space and assorted paid services – we easily take care of those costs,” Huff said.  “Beyond that, what is breaking even?  I don’t have a target for each month.”

While the Block By Block conference included many discussions about future revenue models and turning “labor of love” local news sites into something profitable, Huff remained confident his approach can be financially successful.  And even if it doesn’t, “What’s wrong with it being a labor of love?” he asked.

These interviews were conducted as part of a class at the Medill School of Journalism that’s focused on new approaches to hyperlocal publishing.  To follow the class’s work, check out the class blog, Local Fourth.

Written by richgor

October 6, 2010 at 9:00 am

Posted in Uncategorized

I-News: Where’s the Money?

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One of the major topics at the Sept. 24 Block by Block summit was money: How can a local news site support itself financially? Journalism master’s students from the Medill School at Northwestern University interviewed conference participants about their business and revenue strategies.

Stay tuned for a series of posts in the coming days. We hope these posts will continue conversations that started at Block by Block. If you have ideas that will help these and other online community publishers achieve their goals or questions about how they are doing that, please join the discussion in the comments. Thanks!

By John Yoo

I-News, the Rocky Mountain Investigative News Network, is a Colorado-based non-profit news provider that delivers in-depth investigative journalism to outlets across the Rocky Mountain region. Led by Laura Frank, a veteran investigative reporter with nearly two decades of experience at daily newspapers, radio and public television, I-News relies almost entirely on donations and grants, but is currently experimenting to develop business model with multiple revenue sources.

Frank said the typical business model that generally works for many news organizations would not be suitable for investigative journalism agencies like I-News because investigative reporting is inherently risky and expensive, and therefore requires an initial injection of funds.

I-News currently operates under grants from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation and the Ethics & Excellence Journalism Foundation. It has also won story-specific grants from the McCormick Foundation, the Fund for Investigative Journalism and the Fund for Environmental Journalism.

Frank and her team are currently working toward a “four-legged” business model. This model will ultimately rely on four sources of revenue: grants and donations; subscription services by other media outlets; underwriting; and training for investigative journalists and citizen watchdogs.

The business model is currently at an experimental stage, but Frank said I-News so far has enjoyed success at attracting subscribers and underwriters by promising “more news at a fraction of the cost of hiring one reporter.” As the pitch suggests, at the core of I-News’ revenue generation is the combination of expertise and multimedia skills of veteran investigative reporters willing to produce quality journalism at a reduced cost.

I-News employs three full-time staffs, three interns, and a rotating number of freelancers. All of the employees provide reporting and are paid for their works. The network is mainly led by Frank, the executive director; Burt Hubbard, the editorial director; and Joe Mahoney, the multimedia director. They are supported by interns and freelancers.

As the executive director, Frank is in charge of managing the network’s revenues. In particular, this entails writing applications for grants; meeting with potential sponsors, subscribers and underwriters; and developing business models. She mentioned that I-News also receives some administrative support from Rocky Mountain PBS, a local broadcasting network, especially with accounting.

I-News generated revenues of more than $400,000 in the period from January to June this year, with $300,000 in hand and the other $100,000 yet to be received as grants from the Knight Foundation. Frank said the revenues exceeded the network’s goal of $250,000.

Frank said I-News does not target a specific audience, but given the nature of investigative journalism, it attracts avid news seekers with strong educational backgrounds.

These interviews were conducted as part of a class at the Medill School of Journalism that’s focused on new approaches to hyperlocal publishing.  To follow the class’s work, check out the class blog, Local Fourth.

Written by richgor

October 5, 2010 at 9:00 am

Posted in Uncategorized

Locally Grown News: Where’s the Money?

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One of the major topics at the Sept. 24 Block by Block summit was money: How can a local news site support itself financially? Journalism master’s students from the Medill School at Northwestern University interviewed conference participants about their business and revenue strategies.

Stay tuned for a series of posts in the coming days. We hope these posts will continue conversations that started at Block by Block. If you have ideas that will help these and other online community publishers achieve their goals or questions about how they are doing that, please join the discussion in the comments. Thanks!

By Spencer Rinkus

Locally Grown News describes itself as “an online community designed to foster the ‘eating locally’ movement. Our mission is to generate conversation around sustainable, healthy lifestyles.” Its founder is Michelle Ferrier, associate professor of communications at Elon University. She is the former managing editor of online communities at the Daytona Beach News-Journal.

Is Locally Grown News profit or non-profit, and why did you feel that direction was more promising?

Ferrier: I started the site after receiving a grant, but formed it as a for-profit entity. Why? Because I’m selling a model that people can make a living off of building other LocallyGrownNews.com sites. So profit is essential for the franchise model I’m building.

How much of your site is powered by volunteers and how much is paid staff, and how are you organized?

Ferrier: I am a sole proprietor. I paid my daughter to do some data entry. I sometimes pay freelancers for content. I barter copy from other sites. I use some Creative Commons copy and I rip and grab from other nonprofits that let me. I have a user-generated content model, so I invite users to post content on the site. That takes time, but I’m reaching the tipping point where people see they can do their own thing and help contribute to this community site.

What are your sources of revenue, and do you have a dedicated revenue person? What does their job look like?

Ferrier: I am the dedicated revenue person. I’ve bartered a few ads on my site, but am just getting into ad sales on the site. We just launched in June and I felt it was important to focus on content and delivering a product that was informative, engaging and useful. Ad revenue is one source of revenue. I’m adding a ‘classified ad’ revenue stream. Also, I’m not shying away from a print vehicle, like many other hyperlocals. I think I’ve got a content niche that lends itself to a targeted local publication.

And do you have any idea how much revenue Locally Grown News brought in from January to June this year? How much might you have liked to bring in to break even?

Ferrier: I bartered some food and some promotional items for ads. I’ve been running off the grant money for the past year ($10,000 from the McCormick Foundation New Media Women Entrepreneurs program). But I’ve run other hyperlocals before and I think building content first is critical demonstrating value and audience to advertisers. Plus, I’ve been out meeting those advertisers and not asking them for money . . . just making relationships. I can go back to them for money later.

And last of all — do you love what you’re doing?

Ferrier: Absolutely.

These interviews were conducted as part of a class at the Medill School of Journalism that’s focused on new approaches to hyperlocal publishing.  To follow the class’s work, check out the class blog, Local Fourth.

Written by richgor

October 4, 2010 at 9:00 am

Posted in Uncategorized